Indoor nephrolepis - a noble fern that cleans the air
Noble lush greenery, unpretentiousness, the ability to clean the air of dust and pathogens make nephrolepis one of the most popular indoor ferns. There are many types of nephrolepis, but any of them can become a real decoration of the room, and it does not matter if it is an apartment, a country house or an office. But only healthy well-groomed plants can decorate the room, so the creation of suitable conditions and proper care is the main task of gardeners.
Nephrolepis in nature
Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis) - a perennial herb belongs to the genus of ferns. From Greek, "nephro" is translated as "kidney", and "lepis" - "scales". This family has more than 30 species and they are distributed around the world. In nature, nephrolepses are inhabitants of moist tropical and subtropical forests, and among them there are both terrestrial forms and real epiphytes that prefer to settle on tree trunks and branches.
Vayi of nephrolepis (often found in various descriptions as leaves) are collected in a lush rosette, from which downy shoots without leaves or stolons leave in different directions. Small nodules are often formed on the stolons, with the help of which the fern stocks up nutrients. From nodules in the future, new sockets are formed.
Young waiyi of nephrolepis are folded by a snail and unfold slowly, as the plant grows. Multiple leaf segments, shaped like oblong leaflets, are attached to the vayam on short petioles. On them, spores form with age, with the help of which the fern multiplies, and the process of photosynthesis also occurs in them.
The legend of fern bloom is just a legend, and nephrolepis is no exception. Ferns do not bloom, and nothing can be done about it. Developing, nephrolepis passes through two stages. Sporophyte is a fern that we see in adulthood, but this is the second form of the plant. The first is an inconspicuous small plant grown from spores - a gametophyte. Subsequently, germ cells form on it and sporophyte appears from their fusion.
In southern countries, nephrolepis has long been considered a cultural plant - its various species adorn shady places of gardens and parks, creating pacifying landscapes of wildlife. Using the properties of ferns to grow not only in the lower tier, but also to feel great like an ampel plant, landscape designers create real natural masterpieces.
Long graceful waiyi of some types of terrestrial nephrolepses reach two meters in length and turn the plant into a real chic bush. Other species may be inferior in size, but differ in original openwork greenery and add romantic notes to green compositions.
Types of indoor nephrolepis
In our country, nephrolepis is widely used as an indoor fern. Despite the wide variety of natural forms, not all of them were able to adapt to indoor life, therefore, only a few species are used in indoor floriculture.
Nephrolepisum sublime (Nephrolepis exaltata) - a native of the tropics of Southeast Asia, can be both terrestrial and epiphytic plants. A rosette of large pinnate leaves is attached to a short vertical rhizome. Long, up to 70 cm, vayas are decorated with lanceolate segments up to 5 cm long. On the lower side of the segments along the central vein pairs are located sores - spores.
Over time, the green segments turn yellow and fall off - this is a natural process of dying off old leaves, which are replaced by young vaya from the center of the outlet. Rhizome forms numerous shoots, devoid of leaves. When rooting from these shoots, young plants develop.
In indoor floriculture, numerous varieties of elevated nephrolepis are cultivated, which differ from each other in size, direction of growth and indentation of the leaf plate. Especially popular are varieties with corrugated and wavy segments, as well as variegated forms - plants with colorful colors.
Nephrolepis heart (Nephrolepis cordifolia) outwardly differs little from the sublime. The same structure of the outlet with vertical or deviated veyas from 50 to 100 cm long. But, unlike its closest relative, nodules form on leafless creeping shoots of the heart nephrolipis. The leaf plates of this plant have a more rounded shape.
In the greenhouses and rooms, several varieties of heart-shaped nephrolepis are grown, which differ in the size of the plant as a whole, as well as in the shape and color of leaf segments.
Crescent Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis falcata) - native of Australia and New Guinea, one of the largest ferns. Vaiyi of this plant often reach 2 m in length, so you can grow such giants only in large rooms or greenhouses. Spectacular curved vaiyas are dotted with emerald glossy leaf segments.
Crescent nephrolepis can be distinguished by the shape of a leaf plate with a bifurcated tip. Thanks to this feature, the fern got its second name - fish tail.
Xiphoid nephrolepis(Nephrolepis biserrata) is often referred to as giant fern. In nature, the vayas of this plant can reach 4 m, and leaf plates are more than 20 cm in length. The creeping shoots of the xiphoid nephrolepis do not form nodules, although they extend several meters. In room conditions, the giant fern has a more modest size, but, nevertheless, refers to large specimens.
Conditions for nephrolepis indoors
Growing nephrolepis in a room, it is necessary to take into account its natural preferences. Lighting, temperature and humidity are very important points for any plant and disturbances here can lead to sad results.
Despite the fact that nephrolepis, like most other ferns, is a shade-tolerant plant, it needs light, especially in indoor conditions. If the windows face south, and the room is mostly sunny, the fern can be placed away from the window. The main condition - a lot of light without direct sunlight must be observed.
With a northern orientation, nephrolepis will feel good on the windowsill or close to the window. The lack of light affects not only the appearance of the plant, but also on the development as a whole. A loose outlet with rare vaya, pale greens, weak growth are signs of a lack of lighting.
Temperature and humidity
Comfortable temperature for good growth and development of nephrolepis + 17 ... + 25aboutC. This plant can withstand short-term drops and temperature increases by several degrees, but with the adjustment of watering and humidity. The cooler the room, the more accurate the watering should be, the hotter the higher the humidity.
Nephrolepis does not have a pronounced dormant period, but for the winter it is advisable to remove the plant away from heating appliances, and if the flower winter on the window - insulate the window sill and make sure that the temperature near the pot does not drop below +12aboutFROM.
Most types of nephrolepis prefer high humidity. They respond well to spraying, and in hot weather they especially need it. If the air in the room is very dry, put ferns in a pan with pebbles, where they pour water. The bottom of the pot should not touch the water - this will help to avoid waterlogging of the soil: evaporating, the water will increase the humidity around the plant. To increase humidity, you can use various humidifiers.
Caring for Indoor Nephrolepis
Watering and feeding
Regular watering is perhaps the most important condition for keeping nephrolepses. In the hot season, even short-term drying of the soil should not be allowed. It is necessary to water the plants in the morning hours with soft, settled water at room temperature. In winter, with a cool content, watering is somewhat reduced, being guided by the state of the soil surface - it has dried up, which means you can water it. Excess water from the pan must be drained, preventing its stagnation.
Ferns need fertilizing, but only during the growth period - from April to September. Flower shops offer a wide selection of all kinds of fertilizers for indoor plants. If you can’t find the top dressing for ferns, you can use universal fertilizer, but make the concentration two to three times weaker than what is written in the instructions.
The best option is to feed, alternating between organic and mineral. The same drugs can also be used for foliar top dressing, that is, spraying on the leaf. But in this case, the concentration should be half as weak as for root top dressing.
It is important not to forget - you can not make supplements after transplantation of nephrolepis. There are two reasons for this: during the transplantation, small roots are injured, with which the plant absorbs mineral substances, and there is everything necessary in the new soil so that the plant does not need anything for a month.
Before transplanting nephrolepis, you need to take care of the soil. If possible, you can choose in the store ready-made soil mix for ferns, and if not, you can cook it yourself. It is not difficult to do this, but it is important to consider that ferns love loose, breathable soil. Therefore, you can take in equal parts sheet land, garden and peat, and for looseness add perlite, vermiculite, sand or coconut substrate.
The land for the mixture must be disinfected, so as not to waste energy on the fight against soil pests. The easiest way is to warm the soil in the oven. To do this, you can pour the required amount of earth into a metal container and put in the oven, bringing the temperature to +120aboutFROM.
The container for the transplantation of nephrolepis should be 2-3 cm wider in diameter than the previous one. Deep pots should be avoided, because the root system of the fern is superficial, and the rosette grows in breadth, so preference should be given to wide and flat containers.
If the drainage holes are small or not enough, you must expand existing ones yourself and add new ones. At the bottom, it is imperative to lay a layer of drainage - expanded clay, pebbles or cracked brick.
If nephrolepis is not supposed to be divided into parts, it is best to gently pull the plant out of the pot without disturbing the earthen lump. This technique is called transshipment. Transfer the fern into a new pot and sprinkle along the edges with new soil. When transplanting and planting young nephrolepses, it is very important not to deepen the plant.
The best time for a nephrolepis transplant, like for many other indoor plants, is spring or early summer.
There are several ways to reproduce nephrolepis - dividing the bush, rooting shoots and tubers, as well as spores.
Adult, overgrown nephrolepis is divided during transplantation. To do this, taking the plant out of the pot, divide it by the number of outlets. If you can’t do it with your bare hands, you can use a knife. Slices for reliability are powdered with crushed charcoal and plants are planted in different pots. Such an operation is subjected only to an overgrown fern with numerous rosettes.
Shoots of nephrolepis often root themselves, growing into the soil next to the mother plant. When they grow a little, they can easily be transplanted into separate small glasses or containers.
Sometimes flower growers put special pots with loose soil near the fern, bring leafless root shoots to them and press them to the soil with a hairpin. With regular moistening, after a while, young outlets appear.
Propagation by rooting of tubers is suitable only for those types of nephrolepis in which these same tubers are formed. When transplanting a fern, nodules are separated and planted in separate small pots, slightly sprinkled with earth. The soil must be kept moist until the outlet appears.
Spore propagation is not the most popular method, but you can also try it. The spores formed on the underside of the leaf segment are carefully scraped off with a knife and plated in a flat container. The soil for sowing should be very loose - peat, leaf soil, garden soil and vermiculite (1: 1: 1: 2). Vermiculite can be replaced with perlite or coconut substrate.
Spores are scattered across the surface, not sprinkled with soil, moistened from a spray bottle and covered with glass or film. The container is placed in a warm shaded place and every day aired and sprayed greenhouse.
When the shoots appear, the glass is removed, and the container is placed closer to the light, but do not allow the sun to enter. At this time, it is very important for young seedlings to maintain high humidity and to prevent drafts. The grown plants are planted in separate cups.
Diseases and pests of nephrolepis
When growing nephrolepis, many diseases can be avoided by observing all of the above conditions - adequate lighting, watering without stagnating water, balanced dressing.
The appearance of fungal diseases can be judged by the spots of brown or brown color that appear on the leaf segments, as well as by moldy coating on the waiyi. Having found something like this, you must quickly remove all the damaged parts of the plant and sprinkle it with fungicide. The diseased plant needs to be removed from the remaining plants, and its immediate neighbors should be treated for prevention.
Of the possible insect pests, aphids, whiteflies, thrips, scale insects and spider mites are dangerous for nephrolepis. All parasites leave traces of their activity on the plant - dots, spots, damage or plaque, so it is easy to notice the appearance of pests.
Eating plant juice and damaging greens and stems, insects weaken the fern, which in front of our eyes turns into a dull and oppressed creature. Therefore, having discovered the problem, you must immediately take all measures to combat. Isolate the damaged plant and sprinkle it and its neighbors for insecticide prevention.
The preparations "Fitoverm", "Iskra", "Aktara", "Fufanon" act against many pests, but they must be used as described in the instructions. Repeated treatments must be carried out exactly at the indicated time - the effectiveness of the treatments often depends on this.
Dear readers! Nephrolepis is an unpretentious plant and, decorating your home, it will not require undue care and attention. It is important from the very beginning to create conditions suitable for it - to plant in the right soil, put in a fairly bright, non-hot place, try to increase humidity, water and inspect in a timely manner - everything is just like for other flowers. Juicy greens, a lush rosette, rooted shoots "say" that you are doing everything right.