Lilac: plant and enjoy
Agricultural cultivation. This crop is demanding on soil fertility. The reaction of the medium should be close to neutral. Bushes do not grow well on acidic soils and do not tolerate excess moisture.
Pits for planting lilacs on heavy soils dig a larger size (up to 60x60x60 cm) than on fertile ones. They are filled with the topsoil with the addition of up to 10 kg of organic fertilizers per well. The distance between plants depends on the purpose of planting, varietal and biological characteristics. In group plantings, plants are planted at a distance of two, and with ordinary -2 - 2.5 m. Stem plants are placed no closer than 5 m from each other.
The technique for planting lilacs is the same as for other decorative trees and shrubs. On the soil poured in the pit in the form of a knoll, the root system is spread in all directions. Then it is covered with earth and pressed firmly to the roots. The root neck after soil compaction should be 4 to 5 cm above the soil surface. A recessed landing, like a shallow one, is undesirable. This inhibits the plants and is often the cause of their death.
After planting around a plant in a radius of 50-60 cm, a roller is poured from the soil about 20 cm high. This forms a hole. It is abundantly watered and mulched with a peat layer of 6-8 cm, humus or sawdust. During the summer, wild growth is removed from the grafted plants, weeds, loosen the soil and fight pests and diseases. In subsequent years, the main care measures: pruning and shaping a bush, soil care, watering, fertilizing and combating diseases and pests.
The bush is formed with a height of 10-15 cm with 5th - 6th evenly spaced skeletal branches. This is achieved by short pruning of an annual in the spring. Each of 5-6 branches of the first order of the seedlings is cut off, leaving 3-4 pairs of buds to obtain branches of the second order. In this case, weak shoots are cut inside the bush.
In subsequent years, dry, broken and fatliquoring branches developing inside the crown are cut out, and wild growth that forms below the grafting site is annually removed.
Of great importance in the formation of the bush, especially in the early years of flowering, is the correct cut of inflorescences. It is often possible to observe when the inflorescence is cut off, and even worse, broken off along with an annual, and sometimes with a biennial growth. This leads to the fact that the lilac blooms only after a year. The inflorescence should be cut together with part of last year's branch, and the remaining should have at least two developing shoots, on top of which flower buds are laid in the second half of summer. In this case, the bush will bloom again next year.
In the first 2 - 3 years in the spring, it is recommended to remove part of the flower buds, which contributes to better growth of the young plant. Sometimes flowering is normalized in adult bushes. The growth and subsequent flowering are enhanced by the removal of faded fruit panicles immediately after flowering.
Soil care consists in digging it in September, weeding and loosening in spring and summer.
After the first watering in spring, the soil surface of the trunk circle is mulched with peat, humus or other material. In summer, the soil is constantly kept moist throughout the root layer. Plants need moisture not only in spring and summer, but also in autumn, during autumn root growth, for which, in September and October, abundant, so-called underground watering is carried out. Take 2-5 buckets of water for each square meter of the trunk circle, depending on the mechanical composition of the soil and the age of the plants.
Lilacs are responsive to organic (humus, peat compost, etc.) and mineral (phosphorus, potash, nitrogen) fertilizers. All organic, and from minerals - phosphorus and potash are brought in the autumn under digging the soil. The norm per square meter of the trunk circle is as follows: organic fertilizers - 2 buckets, superphosphate - 3 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate - 2 tbsp. spoons.
Nitrogen fertilizers are used in top dressing before the start of the growing season (end of April) and at the beginning of the growth of shoots, leaves (May). On 1 m2 trunk circle add 1-2 tbsp. urea spoons.