Deytsia - snow-white beauty
The action was named in the 19th century by the Swedish botanist Karl Thunberg in honor of the mayor of Amsterdam, Johann van Deitz, who financed botanical expeditions to Japan and China. Action (Deutzia) - a perennial woody plant, a genus of the Hortense family (Hydrangeaceae) The genus contains about 50 species common in East Asia, the Himalayas, and Mexico.
Description of action
These are beautiful flowering deciduous shrubs of a sprawling or upright shape from 0.5 to 4 meters tall, with opposite leaves and plentiful odorless white or pink flowers collected in apical racemose inflorescences. They bloom on the shoots of last year. They grow well on any type of soil and are generally extremely unpretentious in culture, if not for the almost annual freezing of shoots, on which, in fact, flower buds are formed.
Freezing of some branches is already observed at a temperature of -25 ° С, and at -30 ° С and lower their death above the snow cover is guaranteed. However, the actions are of remarkable quality, when even after severe freezing to the snow cover, the shoots grow back and bloom the same year.
Small actions are used as curbs; the rest - in the form of small groups near the tracks, for single planting and knocking out of wood groups. It is quite stable in a city. One of the most important conditions for a successful crop is proper pruning after flowering. Thickened bushes need to be thinned out. They grow quickly and, under favorable conditions, bloom in the third year after sowing.
The decorative value of the action has long been recognized as practical gardening. Abundant and colorful flowering, grace of flowers give plantings exceptional beauty. It is not for nothing that the outstanding researcher of the flora of China, E. G. Wilson, put actions on a par with roses, lilacs and hydrangeas.
Location: action light-loving, drought-tolerant plants.
The soil: prefer nutritious, medium moist soil. Composition: humus, peat compost, sand (2: 1: 2), with the addition of lime. If the soil is acidic, then 300 g of slaked lime or 200 g of wood ash are added to the pit in the pit.
Landing: The distance between the plants in the row is 2.5 m, between the rows - 2 m. It is better to place bushes in open or slightly shaded places from the midday sun. Planting depth 40-50 cm, root neck at ground level. The root system of action consists of 1-2 large roots going inward, and a mass of small fibrous ones. Thanks to the latter, the action tolerates the transplant well. Drainage: at the bottom of the pit sand with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Pests and diseases: action resistant to diseases and many pests. Rarely a bumblebee proboscis eats leaves. Processing phthalophos 0.15% concentration.
To improve flowering, from time to time they are fertilized with liquid manure (1:10), 5-6 liters per plant. Mineral fertilizer is applied immediately after trimming (Kemira station wagon 100 g / sq. M). Where plants suffer from early-beginning autumn frosts, they are fertilized only in the spring and until the first half of summer so that the plants have time to complete growth and prepare for winter. Under the spring digging on 1 square. m make: 300 g of slaked lime (fluff lime or dolomite flour), 10-20 g of potassium salt, 3-4 kg of rotted manure or compost).
In hot, dry summers, watering 2-3 times a month, 15-20 liters per plant, at normal times - moderate and rarer hydration, 1-2 times 8-10 liters per plant.
Simultaneously with the removal of weeds, the soil is loosened to a depth of 20-25 cm. The young plantings are mulched with a peat layer of 5 cm. Thinning and rejuvenation as the bushes age. Strong trimming involves cutting "on the stump." To give the bush a beautiful shape, faded branches are cut to the first strong new shoot or to the ground. In early June, shoots frozen in winter are cut. In hedges, actions are not sheared!
In winter, light shelter with a dry leaf, a layer of 10-20 cm, bending branches, hilling them with earth, snow. Bending to the ground young plants no higher than one meter does not cause difficulties: such bushes bend easily. But large plants under 2 meters high look especially impressive. In such actions, the shoots are tubular, easily broken, so the bending of the bushes and sheltering them with spruce branches and dry leaves is very difficult. How to protect plants from freezing?
In late autumn, you need to tightly tie the bushes with any breathable material, for example, synthetic material from under empty sugar bags. At the time of shelter in Voronezh, actions, as a rule, are not yet dumped on the foliage (in the suburbs it falls).
Therefore, the leaves themselves remaining on the branches act as additional shelter.
It is difficult to state unequivocally, but it can be assumed that in severe frosts the shoots of actions do not freeze as much as they dry out. With such a simple and not very difficult method of sheltering, it is possible to almost completely preserve the bushes from freezing even in winter with temperatures of -30 ° C.
Propagation of action
Propagation by seeds, layering, root offspring, lignified and green cuttings. Sowing is carried out in the spring without preliminary seed treatment. When sowing, it is enough to firmly press the seeds to the ground and not to close them. Shoots will appear in three weeks. Seed germination lasts one to three years. Store seeds in tightly sealed containers or sealed plastic bags in a cool room. In order to avoid overdrying of seeds and seedlings, it is better to sow in sowing boxes.
Annual seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures and require mandatory shelter. Given their low winter hardiness, picking is carried out in the spring. Under favorable conditions, seedlings will bloom in the third year. Good results are obtained with green cuttings. Cuttings are harvested in the second half of June - the first decade of July. At an air temperature of 15 to 30 ° C and artificial fog (spraying from nozzles), rooting is 90-100%. It can also be propagated by lignified cuttings, layering and root offspring.
Types of Action
Amurian action, or small-flowered - Deutzia amurensis
The area of natural distribution is the Far East, China, North Korea. It is protected in several Far Eastern reserves. In coniferous-deciduous and oak forests, rising into the mountains up to 1400 m above sea level. Photophilous mesophyte.
Ornamental deciduous shrub up to 2 m high, with sprawling branches. The bark of the shoots is brown, later - gray. The leaves are elliptical, opposite, up to 6 cm long, finely serrated, pointed to the apex, tapered at the base, pubescent on both sides, bright green or grayish green in spring and summer, ocherous or brownish yellow in autumn. The flowers are white, odorless, in multi-flowered, corymbose inflorescences, up to 7 cm across. In Moscow, blooms from late May to late June for 16-20 days. Fruits are nondescript, yellow-brown, almost spherical capsules with small seeds.
Gorgeous or magnificent action - Deutzia x magnifica
A hybrid between the action of a rough and the action of Vilmorena. In a culture known in the Oryol region, in Kiev, Sukhumi. There can winter without shelter.
Erect, strongly growing shrub, up to 2.5 m tall. Shoots during flowering arcuate in bending under the weight of flowers. The leaves are elongated, ovate. The flowers are pure white, double, collected in large, up to 10 cm long, umbrella panicles. Flowering time: June. The duration of flowering is three weeks. One of the beautiful and plentifully flowering actions.
Deutzia Vilmorena - Deutzia vilmorinae
The area of natural distribution is Central and Western China.
Shrub up to 2 m tall, with light brown, later exfoliating bark. Young shoots star-pubescent. Oblong-lanceolate leaves up to b cm long, pointed to the apex, finely serrated on the edge; green above, rough, grayish green below, densely covered with radiant hairs. The flowers are white, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Blooms in June for about 20 days.
Used in single and group landings. In culture since 1897.
Deutsia Wilson - Deutzia x wilsonii
Natural hybrid deytsiya soft and deytsiya two-tone (Deutzia motlis x Deutzia discolor). It is found in Western and Central China.
Shrub 1-2 m tall, with slightly pubescent, annual shoots. Branches are reddish-brown, with peeling bark. The leaves are broad-lanceolate (7x2 cm), finely serrated along the edge, dark green above, grayish-white below, in semi-umbrellas. Blooms profusely, in June, up to 30 days.
Extremely flowering shrub (up to 30 days). It is used in borders, hedges, single and group plantings. In a culture since 1901.